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熱搜: 輔導課程 報考指南 政治真題 英語二真題

2019 《英語一》 每日一練(11月15日)

1.【單選題】At a time of this economic ____, our priority should be very clear about what we need to do.

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2.【單選題】When you_____with somebody you love, that’s awful; it takes time to get over.

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3.【單選題】If there is no president, power will be _____ by the most extremist forces.

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閱讀分析

Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country's GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to.

    The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?

    A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvements for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing.

    While all of these countries face their own challenges, there are a number of consistent themes. Yes, there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash, but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline. Yet this isn’t the case with all countries. Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society, income equality and environment.

   This is a lesson that rich countries can learn: When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different.

So what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations, as a measure, it is no longer enough. It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person's sense of well-being.

The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth. But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress. 


4.【單選題】Robert

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   First two hours , now three hours—this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight , at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines.

  Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security procedures in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804,which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea ,provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans’ economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.

  Last year, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons---both fake and real—past airport security nearly every time they tried .Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving Chicago’s O’Hare International .It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become—but the lines are obvious.

  Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel , so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this.

  There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck.

  It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock. Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck’s fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways.

  The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work.


5.【單選題】 With regard to mass sports, the author holds that governments should______.
[A] organize “grassroots” sports events
[B] supervise local sports associations
[C] increase funds for sports clubs
[D] invest in pubic sports facilities

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 "The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers," wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope(TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity's view of the cosmos.

  At issue is the TMT's planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko , that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world's most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea's peak rises above the bulk of our planet's dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity.

  Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environments have long viewed their presence as disrespect for sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation.

  Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea's fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the island's inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today.

  Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii's shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes.

  The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope's visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.


6.【單選題】Queen Liliuokalani's remark in Paragraph 1 indicates
[A] its conservative view on the historical role of astronomy.
[B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.
[C] the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times.
[D] her appreciation of star watchers' feats in her time.

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  People have speculated for centuries about a future without work. Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again _1_ that technology be replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by _2_. A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.

  A different and not mutually exclusive _3_ holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one _4_ by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives _5_, people will simply become lazy and depressed. _6_, today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for _7_ Americans. Also, some research suggests that the _8_ for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting _9_ poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many _10_ the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.

  But it doesn’t _11_ follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the _12_ of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the _13_ of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could _14_ strikingly different circumstanced for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the _15_ of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.

  These days, because leisure time is relatively _16_ for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional _17_ of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel _18_,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself _19_ a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for _20_ matters.


7.【單選題】[A] inequality 
[B] instability 
[C] unreliability 
[D] uncertainty

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8.【單選題】[A] chances 
[B] downsides 
[C] benefits 
[D] principles

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  The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were — reptiles or birds — are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.

  Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a winglike membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharpclaws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V shape along each side of the animal’s body.

  The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

  Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.

  Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.


9.【單選題】 It can be inferred from the text that scientist now generally agree that the
[A] enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them
to fly great distances.
[B] structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs
suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats.
[C] fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they
solved the problem of powered flight.
[D] pterosaurs were reptiles. 

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When a coalition of interest activists and web companies scuppered the Hollywood-sponsored Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) last year, they warned Congress that future attempts to push through legislation that threatened digital freedoms would be met with a similar response. Now some of them are up in arms again, this time against the Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act (CISPA). This is one of several bills designed to reinforce America’s cyber-defences that were being discussed by the House of Representatives.
Whatever the outcome of the deliberations, the fuss surrounding CISPA is unlikely to die down soon. Its fans, which include companies such as IBM and Intel, say the bill’s provisions will help America defend itself against attempts by hackers to penetrate vital infrastructure and pinch companies’ intellectual property. CISPA’s critics, which include the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital-rights group, and Mozilla, the maker of the Firefox web browser, argue that it could achieve that goal without ignoring privacy laws designed to prevent the government getting its hands on citizens’ private data without proper judicial oversight.
CISPA aims to encourage intelligence-sharing. Companies and spies often keep quiet about cyber-threats because they fear that sharing the details many land them in legal hot water. But this makes it harder both to hunt hackers, and to defend power grids and other infrastructure against online assaults. The bill encourage both groups to be more forthcoming by offering them an exemption from civil and criminal liability when gathering and sharing data about cyber-threats.
The trouble is that although its goal is laudable, the bill is vague about what sort of information on cyber-threats can be shared. So in theory everything from e-mails to medical records could end up being shipped to intelligence agencies, even if it is not needed. Harvey Anderson of Mozilla says CISPA “creates a black hole” through which all kinds of data could be sucked in by the government.
The bill does forbid the use by officials of personal information from medical records, tax returns and a list of other documents. But its critics say it would be far better if companies had to get rid of such data before sharing what is left. They also note that the broad legal protection CISPA offers to firms could be abused by companies keen to cover up mishaps in their handling of customer data. A more carefully worded legal remedy would stop that happening.
All this has exposed a rift in the internet world. Whereas Mozilla and other firms want CISPA to be overhauled or scrapped, some web firms that helped sink SOPA seem ambivalent. Google claims it has taken no formal position on the draft legislation and it “watching the process closely”. But TechNet, an industry group whose members include the web giant and Facebook, has written to the House Intelligence Committee expressing support for CISPA. If Google and other web companies do have doubts about some of the bill’s provisions, now would be the time for them to sound the alarm.

10.【單選題】( )We learn from the first paragraph that SOPA has _______. A incurred criticism

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